Wednesdays, 1-4:00pm, E15-359 (Media Lab, 75 Amherst/20 Ames St., Cambridge, MA)
Journalism is at a crossroads. Existing business models are failing. Bloggers, Twitter users, bots, sensors, drones, activists and advertisers are producing more news than ever before. Front-page editors used to curate a shared media experience; now we read the news our friends read, personalize our feeds into extreme niches, and try to crowdsource the identities of criminal suspects. A revolution in tools and techniques is changing how amateurs, professionals, crowds and algorithms) report and share news. And yet, the public need for high-quality information about current events remains unchanged.
This class considers the news as a design and engineering challenge, including questions like:
+ Who/what delivers the news of the future?
+ How can we engineer tools for journalists to make sense of Big Data, particularly in moments of crisis with rapidly unfolding events?
+ Can we protect the anonymity of sources and security of data in investigative reporting?
+ What novel forms of cross-platform storytelling can be developed to give context to an ongoing story or engage the public in issues that matter?
+ Can you write an algorithm to detect a rumor?
+ Could someone please solve the problem of comments?
We’ll explore the systems journalists have used to report and share the news, but we’ll focus on developing our own tools and methods to address these challenges. Students will work independently or collaboratively to produce final projects. We are likely to have a mix of technologists and professional journalists in the class, and collaboration between people with different skillsets is highly encouraged.
The first section of the class features weekly assignments. Completing each assignment requires authoring a news story. That story can be textual, graphical, audio, video, interactive, or any combination of these methods. At least one story must be long-form text (1000 or more words); at least one story must use a medium other than text. Creating new tools or methods to solve these weekly reporting challenges is encouraged, but not mandatory. It is mandatory for the final assignment: based on the previous week’s assignments, or based on an interesting unsolved reporting problem, you will be designing and testing a novel reporting tool or technique. You must report a story using this tool/technique, and at least one classmate should report using your tool as well (reciprocity is expected and encouraged).
Classes are structured as follows:
- 60 minutes of discussion, focused on the assigned reading
- 10 minute break
- 70 minutes discussion/critique of previous week’s assignment
- 10 minute discussion of upcoming assignment
Grades are calculated as follows:
- 25% class participation
- 50% performance on weekly assignments
- 25% final project
Weekly assignments are designed to be completed within the week or fortnight they were assigned, and posted online by midnight prior to the day of class. Extensions will be granted only in the case of illness, unavoidable travel and alien abduction (pics or it didn’t happen). Text-based assignments should be between 800–1500 words. At least one assignment must be completed in a primarily non-text format. This could include an audio or audiovisual story (aim for 5 minute pieces), a photo essay, a simulation or game. At least one assignment must be completed using text or hypertext as the primary medium. Final projects must be presented to the whole class, explaining the novelty and utility of the tools or techniques, along with the stories reported using the tools. You are strongly encouraged, though not required, to share your reporting on a personal blog, class blog or through any number of syndication and sharing methods. Similarly, commenting on other students’ blog posts is strongly encouraged and will be considered as part of class participation.
February 4: Meet and greet, Overview, Civic Media demo
Discussion of the structure of the class, conversation about the shifts in the news environment in a digital age
Reading for February 11:
Assignment for February 11: Select a tool that you believe has important implications for the future of news or storytelling. Come prepared to present a quick introduction to using the tool for your classmates.
February 11: The New Toolkit
In black and white movies about the golden age of newspapers, the journalist’s toolkit includes a manual typewriter, a press card and a bottle of bourbon. Today’s journalist is often asked to report a story online, lay it out for publication on paper, accompany it with a video feature or an interactive data visualization and promote it via social media. For the first half of the class, Alexis Hope, Ali Hashmi and Jude Mwenda will present some of the tools, introducing you to their capabilities and uses. For the second half of the class, students will show off some of their favorite tools and offer instructions in how to get started using these tools.
Assignment, due February 18: Media Diary
Maintain a media diary, tracking all media you encounter in the course of a week, where it originated, whether it was news or entertainment media. Present your diary, preferably in a way that offers summary and analysis of patterns you’ve discovered from keeping it.
Prior year examples: Adrienne’s Media Diary, Erhardt’s Media Diary, Catherine’s Media Diary, Jean’s Media Diary
Reading for February 18:
- The Creation of Media, Introduction and Chapter 3, Paul Starr
- We the Media, Chapter 1, Dan Gillmor
- The Elements of Journalism, Introduction and Chapter 1, Kovach and Rosenstiel
- “News is bad for you – and giving up reading it will make you happier”, Rolf Dobelli
February 18: The Newsroom and Everything After
How did we end up with the news media we currently rely on? We’ll work together to identify strengths and weaknesses in existing and evolving forms of news production. Matt Carroll, Pulitzer-winning Boston Globe journalist will join us to discuss some of the challenges of contemporary newsrooms.
Assignment, due February 25: Four Hour Challenge
Pick a story, preferably a local event, and produce a story, start to finish, within four contiguous hours. That includes the event: a lecture starting at 7pm equals a story filed by 11pm at the latest. Major props for doing this assignment in a non-text based medium.
Prior year examples: Sports match recap, Breaking news timeline, Event experience video
Reading for February 25:
- Clay Shirky’s 2009 Shorenstein Center lecture
- Stories on Bell, CA including:
- “Who is a journalist? Manning trial poses question of vital public interest”, Jeff Jarvis
- “Freedom of the Press Foundation Established to Crowd-Fund Transparency Journalism”, Press Release. (Edward Snowden has recently joined their board.)
February 25: Accountability journalism
What do we need to know to be effective civic actors? What’s the role of the news in exposing wrongdoing? In enabling civic participation? Special guest appearance from Matt Carroll, offering the secrets of the personal interview.
Assignment, due March 4: Classmate Profile / Personal Data
You will be randomly assigned another student in the class and someone else will be assigned to you. Your job is to thoroughly research your subject online and discover as much information as possible about them on the Internet to create a detailed profile. Then you may choose to use a 30-minute interview with your subject as fact-checking. Your research and interview will be the basis for a profile of the subject. We recommend that you do not post these profiles to the class blog but rather share them in advance of the class via email.
Prior year examples: Erhardt Interviews Julia
Reading for March 4:
- “The Science of Why We Don’t Believe in Science”, Chris Mooney
- Deadly Spin, Excerpt, Wendell Potter
- Bill Moyers interview with Potter (here and here)
- Q+A with Potter in The New York Times
- “Lies, Damned Lies and Fact-checking”, Mark Hemingway
- LazyTruth by Matt Stempeck
March 4: Facts and Fact-checking, Truth and Truthiness
One of the major functions of news media is verification—examining claims made by corporations, organizations and government officials to check their veracity. This function is complicated by the emergence of PR practices designed to disguise corporate speech, and a tendency of political rhetoric to stray beyond truth… and further complicated by human tendencies to remember untrue information when it confirms our biases. How should we verify information in this sort of environment?
Assignment, due March 11: Fact-checking
Take a look at LazyTruth by Matt Stempeck. How can we do fact-checking that is more likely to meet its mark and make a difference in persuading people that the facts are, indeed, true? Using that question as a starting point, choose a text that makes truth claims—a political speech, a position paper from an advocacy group, a corporate press release—and write a story that evaluates truth claims contained within and thinks carefully about how to leverage the facts to convince the readers of their veracity. Examples: Alistair on Climate Change, MC annotates the Westboro Baptist Church
Reading for March 11:
- “Andy Carvin: The Future of Journalism?”, Noah Echols interviews Andy Carvin
- “The Problem With Tweeting a Revolution”, Jacob Silverman reviews Andy Carvin’s book
- “The Curator’s Challenge”, Meg Heckman
- “International Reporting in an Age of Participatory Media”, Ethan Zuckerman
- “Should Reddit Be Blamed for the Spreading of a Smear?”, Jay Caspian Kang
- additional readings about the Marathon bombing, challenges of verifying breaking news
March 11: Reporting via Citizen Media
Important news takes place in locales where there are few professional journalists on the ground. Increasingly, we get breaking news reports from people directly affected by events. How do we verify accounts that come from citizen sources? How to we find solutions to questions of credibility, priority and context when reporting on events we can’t witness in person? What are the strengths and limits to this model of reporting?
Assignment, due March 18: Reporting as Curation
Tell a story you can’t report on in person by curating online sources: twitter feeds, blog posts, Flickr photos, YouTube videos. The bulk of the story should be “actualities”—the words of people affected by the situation, not your analysis.
Prior year examples: In Egypt, How Free is Free?, Red Sox Opening Day with Vine, Mass Transport Bill Passes House; Progressives and Michigan Fans Upset
Required reading for March 18:
Optional reading for March 18:
- If You’ve Ignored Bitcoin Up Until Now, This One’s For You, Emily Siner (NPR)
- By reading this article, you’re mining bitcoins, Ritchie S. King
- The Curious Case of the Silent Filibuster, Patrick Sharma and Josh Kalven (Newsbound)
- “Gun Violence in America”, Jonathan Stray
- Lewis DVorkin on Forbes and the long form
- Planet Money Makes a T-Shirt
March 18: The Explainer
Some of the most important and influential news reporting isn’t a short update on a breaking event; it’s long-form reporting designed to explain and contextualize a story, allowing readers to understand the importance of an issue they might have otherwise neglected or ignored. What aspects of verification, contextualization and prioritization come into creating long-form news narratives, and how might new tools help us with this process?
Assignment, due April 1: Explainer
Pick a brief article from a newspaper, blog or other source that serves as an update in the arc of a longer story (Airstrikes continue in Pakistan; Fed raises interest rates). Write a companion story, create an infographic, or choose another form that provides essential background information that makes the previous story understandable to a very broad audience (i.e., non-expert, international). Remember, hypertext is your friend.
Prior year examples: Burma or Myanmar?, North Korea Missile Test FAQ
Reading for April 1:
- Data Journalism: Making it Real, Andy Dickinson
- How to analyze unfamiliar data, Ted Cuzzillo
- 4 examples of innovative online newsgathering, Sarah Marshall
Optional Reading for April 1:
- How NetFlix Reverse Engineered Hollywood, Alexis Madrigal
- Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data, Edward Segel and Jeffrey Herr (will be sent via email)
- The Best Stats You’ve Ever Seen, TED talk by Hans Rosling
March 26: No class, spring break
April 1: News and Data Visualization
Special guest star Rahul Bhargava will talk about one of the promises of the era of big data—the possibility of breaking important stories through the careful analysis of data. While there’s good evidence that untold stories lurk within data sets, telling a story with data is far more complicated than just analyzing and visualizing—it requires context and human stories as well.
Assignment, due April 8: Data Story
Use publicly available data to report a story. This could include analysis of a city budget, lobbying information, or building permit data. Collecting your own data set via crowd sourcing is perfectly valid, but we’ll be brainstorming promising data sets in class before taking on the assignment. Prior year examples: Trayvon Martin Media Coverage, Mapping the News, Romanian Memes, Boston Restaurant Suspensions, Congressional Partisanship
Reading for April 8:
- “News is bad for you – and giving up reading it will make you happier”, Rolf Dobelli
- Saving the News with Advocacy Journalism: ten minutes with the Nieman Foundation, Ethan Zuckerman
- What is Solutions Journalism?, David Bornstein
- History of Advocacy Journalism (prezi), Laurel Sallie
Explore for April 8:
April 8: Media and Civic Participation
Fox News’s (disingenuous) slogan, “We report, you decide” invokes a basic tenet of American journalism – the media’s role is to report news, not tell readers or viewers how they should interpret or react to them. One shift in our media landscape is an attempt to link news and action, connecting readers to organizations they might support or actions they might take in reaction to a story. This is a controversial development, leading some to criticize “advocacy journalism” and others to hope that linking news to action may preserve or expand the audience for investigative news.
Assignment, due April 22: Working from a news story that reports on a contemporary issue (domestic or international), create a companion piece that offers a reader actions they might take after reading the previous story.
April 15: No class – Media Lab Member Week
April 22: To be announced
Ethan is in Brazil and this class will feature a visiting faculty member or a workshop from one of the TAs. The second half is a brainstorming session for final project ideas, with feedback from the TAs.
Reading for April 29:
April 29: Final Project Pitch
Each team will present their proposal final project in 3 slots. If there’s sufficient time, Alexis will offer a crash course in user-centered design, specifically on developing user stories and workshops to help Final Project teams with design, presentation, and the requirement that a non-team member report a story using your tool or process.
Assignment, due May 13: Final Project
Reading for May 6:
- “Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable”, Clay Shirky
- “The Reconstruction of American Journalism”, Leonard Downie Jr. and Michael Schudson
- Mathew Ingram on Gawker
- The Atlantic on Scientology
- “Transfer of Value”, Frédéric Filloux (Monday Note)
- “The newsonomics of how the news industry will be tested in 2014″, Ken Doctor
- OPTIONAL: “Is Scientific Publication About to Be Disrupted”, Michael Nielsen
- OPTIONAL: “Piracy is Progressive Taxation”, Tim O’Reilly
May 6: Who Pays?
Business models to support long-form, investigative and international reporting are in flux. Newspapers no longer have monopoly over local advertising and many are shrinking their staff and their ambitions. While amateur forms of media production are producing strong results, there’s reasons to worry about the survival of expensive-to-produce types of news. Who pays for the news we need to function as informed and engaged citizens?
Assignment, due May 13: Final Project
Continue work on the final project.
Reading for May 13:
May 13: Presenting the Final Projects
With snacks, mandatory revelry and merriment
If possible, please plan to join us from 1pm into the early evening—we will spend 2.5–3 hours presenting work and will adjourn to one of Cambridge’s many bars to continue the conversation over drinks.