Wednesdays, 1-4:00pm, E15-341 (Media Lab, 75 Amherst/20 Ames St., Cambridge, MA)
Instructor: Ethan Zuckerman (with Special Guest Stars). TA: Holly Haney.
These are interesting times for journalism. Existing business models are failing. Bloggers, Twitter users, bots, sensors, drones, activists, propagandists, fabulists and advertisers are producing more news than ever before. Front-page editors used to curate a shared media experience; now we read the news our friends read, personalize our feeds into extreme niches, and try to crowdsource the identities of criminal suspects. A revolution in tools and techniques is changing how amateurs, professionals, crowds and algorithms) report and share news. And yet, the public need for high-quality information about current events remains unchanged.
If that wasn’t enough, the President of the United States has declared the media to be “the opposition party”. And while the very nature of truth, fairness in reporting and reality itself currently seem up for grabs, the pervasive mistrust that news organizations suffer from is a major problem for democracy, and for their survival.
This class considers the news as a design and engineering challenge, including questions like:
+ What tools will we use to report news in the future? What channels will distribute it?
+ How big a problem is “fake news” and can we root it out algorithmically?
+ When is it appropriate for people reporting news to advocate for political positions? For their perspective and view of events?
+ How can we engineer tools for journalists to make sense of Big Data, particularly in moments of crisis with rapidly unfolding events?
+ Can we protect the anonymity of sources and security of data in investigative reporting?
+ What novel forms of cross-platform storytelling can be developed to give context to an ongoing story or engage the public in issues that matter?
+ Can you write an algorithm to detect a rumor? A website that profits from rumor-mongering?
+ Could someone please solve the problem of comments?
We’ll explore the systems journalists have used to report and share the news, but we’ll focus on developing our own tools and methods to address these challenges. Students will work independently or collaboratively to produce final projects. We are likely to have a mix of technologists and professional journalists in the class, and collaboration between people with different skillsets is highly encouraged.
The first section of the class features weekly assignments. Completing each assignment requires authoring a news story. That story can be textual, graphical, audio, video, interactive, or any combination of these methods. At least one story must be long-form text (1000 or more words); at least one story must use a medium other than text. Creating new tools or methods to solve these weekly reporting challenges is encouraged, but not mandatory. It is mandatory for the final assignment: based on the previous week’s assignments, or based on an interesting unsolved reporting problem, you will be designing and testing a novel reporting tool or technique. You must report a story using this tool/technique, and at least one classmate should report using your tool as well (reciprocity is expected and encouraged).
Classes are structured as follows:
– 60 minutes of critique of last week’s assignment
– 10 minute break
– 75 minutes discussion of reading and issues raised
– 15 minute discussion of upcoming assignment
Grades are calculated as follows:
– 25% class participation
– 50% performance on weekly assignments
– 25% final project
Weekly assignments are designed to be completed within the week or fortnight they were assigned, and posted online by midnight prior to the day of class. Extensions will be granted only in the case of illness, unavoidable travel and alien abduction (pics or it didn’t happen). Text-based assignments should be between 800–1500 words. At least one assignment must be completed in a primarily non-text format. This could include an audio or audiovisual story (aim for 5 minute pieces), a photo essay, a simulation or game. At least one assignment must be completed using text or hypertext as the primary medium. Final projects must be presented to the whole class, explaining the novelty and utility of the tools or techniques, along with the stories reported using the tools. You are strongly encouraged, though not required, to share your reporting on a personal blog, class blog or through any number of syndication and sharing methods. Similarly, commenting on other students’ blog posts is strongly encouraged and will be considered as part of class participation.
February 8: Meet and greet, Overview, Civic Media demo
Discussion of the structure of the class, conversation about the shifts in the news environment in a digital age
Reading for February 15: Review these collections of journalism tools for inspiration for this week’s assignment
20 tools and resources every journalist should experiment with
5 Must-have Accessories for Mobile Journalists
A toolkit for protesters
10 Trusty Digital Tools
95 Tools for Investigative Journalists
A Data Journalism Expert’s Personal Toolkit
Assignment for February 15: Select a tool that you believe has important implications for the future of news or storytelling. Write about the tool on the class blog. Come prepared to present a quick introduction to using the tool for your classmates.
February 15: The New Toolkit
In black and white movies about the golden age of newspapers, the journalist’s toolkit included a manual typewriter, a press card and a bottle of bourbon. Today’s journalist is often asked to report a story online, lay it out for publication on paper, accompany it with a video feature or an interactive data visualization and promote it via social media. For the first half of the class special guest star Alexis Hope will present some of the tools, introducing you to their capabilities and uses. For the second half of the class, students will show off some of their favorite tools and offer instructions in how to get started using these tools.
Assignment, due February 22: Media Diary
Maintain a media diary, tracking all media you encounter in the course of a week, where it originated, whether it was news or entertainment media. Present your diary, preferably in a way that offers summary and analysis of patterns you’ve discovered from keeping it.
Prior year examples: Adrienne’s Media Diary, Erhardt’s Media Diary, Catherine’s Media Diary, Jean’s Media Diary
Reading for February 22:
- The Creation of Media, Introduction and Chapter 3, Paul Starr
- We the Media, Chapter 1, Dan Gillmor
- The Elements of Journalism, Introduction and Chapter 1, Kovach and Rosenstiel
- “News is bad for you – and giving up reading it will make you happier”, Rolf Dobelli
February 22: How did we get here?
How did we end up with the news media we currently rely on? Have we grown the media we need, or do we need a different media for this moment in time? What’s the appropriate relationship between the press and powerful institutions it covers? We’ll work together to identify strengths and weaknesses in existing and evolving forms of news production.
Assignment, due March 1: Four Hour Challenge
Pick a story, preferably a local event, and produce a story, start to finish, within four contiguous hours. That includes the event: a lecture starting at 7pm equals a story filed by 11pm at the latest. Major props for doing this assignment in a non-text based medium.
Prior year examples: Sports match recap, Breaking news timeline, Event experience video
Reading for March 1:
- Clay Shirky’s Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable</LI>
- Optional: Shirky’s 2009 Shorenstein Center lecture
- Stories on Bell, CA including:
- “Who is a journalist? Manning trial poses question of vital public interest”, Jeff Jarvis
March 1: Accountability journalism
What do we need to know to be effective civic actors? What’s the role of the news in exposing wrongdoing? In enabling civic participation?
Assignment, due March 8: Classmate Profile / Personal Data
You will be randomly assigned another student in the class and someone else will be assigned to you. Your job is to thoroughly research your subject online and discover as much information as possible about them on the Internet to create a detailed profile. Then you may choose to use a 30-minute interview with your subject as fact-checking. Your research and interview will be the basis for a profile of the subject. We recommend that you do not post these profiles to the class blog but rather share them in advance of the class via email.
Prior year examples: Erhardt Interviews Julia
Reading for March 8:
- “Andy Carvin: The Future of Journalism?”, Noah Echols interviews Andy Carvin
- “The Problem With Tweeting a Revolution”, Jacob Silverman reviews Andy Carvin’s book
- “The Curator’s Challenge”, Meg Heckman
- “International Reporting in an Age of Participatory Media”, Ethan Zuckerman
- “Should Reddit Be Blamed for the Spreading of a Smear?”, Jay Caspian Kang
- Reddit’s ‘Find Boston Bombers’ Founder Says ‘It Was a Disaster’ but ‘Incredible’, Alexander Abad-Santos
- Inside Reddit’s Hunt for the Boston Bombers, Kate Pickert and Adam Sorensen
- Journalists Charles Sennott And Seth Mnookin Discuss Boston Manhunt, only read the Seth Mnookin section)
March 8: Reporting via Citizen Media
Important news takes place in locales where there are few professional journalists on the ground. Increasingly, we get breaking news reports from people directly affected by events. How do we verify accounts that come from citizen sources? How to we find solutions to questions of credibility, priority and context when reporting on events we can’t witness in person? What are the strengths and limits to this model of reporting?
Assignment, due March 15: Reporting as Curation
Tell a story you can’t report on in person by curating online sources: twitter feeds, blog posts, Flickr photos, YouTube videos. The bulk of the story should be “actualities”—the words of people affected by the situation, not your analysis.
Prior year examples: In Egypt, How Free is Free?, Red Sox Opening Day with Vine, Mass Transport Bill Passes House; Progressives and Michigan Fans Upset
Required reading for March 15:
- “The Science of Why We Don’t Believe in Science”, Chris Moone
- “Lies, Damned Lies and Fact-checking”, Mark Hemingwa
- How Teens In The Balkans Are Duping Trump Supporters With Fake News, motherjones.com/…/denial-science-chris-mooneyCraig Silverman
- Did Media Literacy Backfire?, danah boyd
- Fake News is a Red Herring, Ethan Zuckerman
- Why Fake News Stories Thrive Online, Judith Donath
- How the 2016 Election Blew Up in Facebook’s Face
- LazyTruth by Matt Stempeck
March 15: Facts and Fact-checking, Truth and Truthiness
One of the major functions of news media is verification—examining claims made by corporations, organizations and government officials to check their veracity. This function is complicated by the emergence of PR practices designed to disguise corporate speech, and a tendency of political rhetoric to stray beyond truth… and further complicated by human tendencies to remember untrue information when it confirms our biases. How should we verify information in this sort of environment?
Assignment, due March 22: Fact-checking
Tell a story that makes truth claims about a disputed subject.
Using techniques from the Debunking Handbook,
and using what you know about motivated reasoning,
leading with values, persuade a broad audience
– including those hostile to your claims – of the truth of your assertions.
Optional event: On the afternoon of March 16, we will have a brainstorming session hosted at Center for Civic Media on the idea of “wide news”. Working with team members from Google News, we will explore prototype ideas for incorporating diverse news perspectives into the content discovery process. No design or tech experience needed, feel free to join if you are able. This event will take place in the Center for Civic Media Lab 2-5 P.M. March 16th.
Required reading for March 22:
- Data Journalism: Making it Real, Andy Dickinson
- How to analyze unfamiliar data, Ted Cuzzillo
- 4 examples of innovative online newsgathering, Sarah Marshall
Optional Reading for March 22:
- How NetFlix Reverse Engineered Hollywood, Alexis Madrigal
- Narrative Visualization: Telling Stories with Data, Edward Segel and Jeffrey Herr (will be sent via email)
- The Best Stats You’ve Ever Seen, TED talk by Hans Rosling
March 22: News and Data Visualization
News and Data Visualization
Special guest star Rahul Bhargava will talk about one of the promises of the era of big data—the possibility of breaking important stories through the careful analysis of data. While there’s good evidence that untold stories lurk within data sets, telling a story with data is far more complicated than just analyzing and visualizing—it requires context and human stories as well.
Assignment, due April 12: Data Story
Use publicly available data to report a story. This could include analysis of a city budget, lobbying information, or building permit data. Collecting your own data set via crowd sourcing is perfectly valid, but we’ll be brainstorming promising data sets in class before taking on the assignment. Prior year examples: Trayvon Martin Media Coverage, Mapping the News, Romanian Memes, Boston Restaurant Suspensions, Congressional Partisanship
Required reading for April 12:
Optional reading for April 12:
- If You’ve Ignored Bitcoin Up Until Now, This One’s For You, Emily Siner (NPR)
- By reading this article, you’re mining bitcoins, Ritchie S. King
- The Curious Case of the Silent Filibuster, Patrick Sharma and Josh Kalven (Newsbound)
- “Gun Violence in America”, Jonathan Stray
- Lewis DVorkin on Forbes and the long form
- Planet Money Makes a T-Shirt
March 30: No Class, MIT spring break
April 5: No Class, MIT Media Lab member meeting
April 12: The Explainer
Some of the most important and influential news reporting isn’t a short update on a breaking event; it’s long-form reporting designed to explain and contextualize a story, allowing readers to understand the importance of an issue they might have otherwise neglected or ignored. What aspects of verification, contextualization and prioritization come into creating long-form news narratives, and how might new tools help us with this process?
Assignment, due April 19: Explainer
Pick a brief article from a newspaper, blog or other source that serves as an update in the arc of a longer story (Airstrikes continue in Pakistan; Fed raises interest rates). Write a companion story, create an infographic, or choose another form that provides essential background information that makes the previous story understandable to a very broad audience (i.e., non-expert, international). Remember, hypertext is your friend.
Prior year examples: Burma or Myanmar?, North Korea Missile Test FAQ
Reading for April 19:
To be announced
UPDATE: Read the assigned readings for April 26 (below) for April 19 due to schedule change. April 19th will deal with Media and Civic Participation.
April 19: Whose News?
(MOVED TO APRIL 26)
Who makes the news we encounter? Whose stories get to be news, and whose go unreported? Newsrooms are facing a crisis of diversity, where staffing cuts appear to be getting in the way of creating reporting opportunities for women and people of color, who are underrepresented in US newsrooms. But there are further diversity crises in terms of who is reported on, who is cited, who writes opeds and opinion pieces, and what issues are covered. Furthermore, there’s ongoing questions of whether journalism itself has pervasive left-wing biases. We’ll hear from researchers at Center for Civic Media, who will try to clarify and complicate these questions.
Required reading for April 26:
- Keep it in the ground
- Saving the News with Advocacy Journalism: ten minutes with the Nieman Foundation, Ethan Zuckerman
- What is Solutions Journalism?, David Bornstein
- History of Advocacy Journalism (prezi), Laurel Sallie
- The Media is Changing for Good” by Cathrine Gyldensted
Explore for April 26:
- The Redirect
- Ulrik Haagerup on constructive journalism
- It’s Journalism’s Job to Save Civics, a talk by Ethan Zuckerman at the first annual conference on constructive journalism
April 26: Media and Civic Participation
Fox News’s (disingenuous) slogan, “We report, you decide” invokes a basic tenet of American journalism – the media’s role is to report news, not tell readers or viewers how they should interpret or react to them. One shift in our media landscape is an attempt to link news and action, connecting readers to organizations they might support or actions they might take in reaction to a story. This is a controversial development, leading some to criticize “advocacy journalism” and others to hope that linking news to action may preserve or expand the audience for investigative news.
Assignment, due May 3: Post to the blog one piece of news written by someone from or written about your own community. You are free to interpret your community on the basis of geography, identity, or any other factors you see fit. Consider how this piece and perspective reflect or disagree with your own point of view.
Also due May 3: Final project presentation. Well before now, you should be getting together with possible teammates and coming up with a final project. On the 3rd, you’ll be expected to present these ideas, along with 3 slides explaining them, for feedback and critique.
Reading for May 3:
Ijeoma Oluo interviews Rachel Dolezal, Ijeoma Oluoa. https://www.colorlines.com/articles/most-important-thread-black-women-media-youll-read-today (Ijeoma Oluo tweets about writing about Black women as a Black woman)
- The Status of Women in the U.S. Media 2015, page 7 and 8
- Agenda Setting and Framing Current Examples
- The Structure of Foreign News
May 3: Who’s News and Final Project Pitch
Each team will present their proposal final project in 3 slides. If there’s sufficient time, Alexis Hope will offer a crash course in user-centered design, specifically on developing user stories and workshops to help Final Project teams with design, presentation, and the requirement that a non-team member report a story using your tool or process.
No more assignments – all work now focuses on the final project
Required reading for May 10:
- 76 Ways to Make Money in Digital Media, David Plotz
- Mathew Ingram on Gawker
- The Atlantic on Scientology
- “Transfer of Value”, Frédéric Filloux (Monday Note)
- “The newsonomics of how the news industry will be tested in 2014″, Ken Doctor
- OPTIONAL: “Is Scientific Publication About to Be Disrupted”, Michael Nielsen
- OPTIONAL: “Piracy is Progressive Taxation”, Tim O’Reilly
- OPTIONAL: Gaining ground, or just treading water? Nikki Usher and Matthew Hindman
- OPTIONAL: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/08/advertising-is-the-internets-original-sin/376041/
May 10: Who Pays?
Business models to support long-form, investigative and international reporting are in flux. Newspapers no longer have monopoly over local advertising and many are shrinking their staff and their ambitions. While amateur forms of media production are producing strong results, there’s reasons to worry about the survival of expensive-to-produce types of news. Who pays for the news we need to function as informed and engaged citizens?
Assignment, due May 17: Final Project
Continue work on the final project.
May 17: Presenting the Final Projects
With snacks, mandatory revelry and merriment
If possible, please plan to join us from 1pm into the early evening—we will spend 2.5–3 hours presenting work and will adjourn to one of Cambridge’s many bars to continue the conversation over drinks.